How comfortable is a comprehensive TV box? Comparison and evaluation of three mainstream TV boxes

  Recently, the system that comes with the old TV at home has some cards, and the cost of changing the TV is relatively high. If you add a TV box, the cost will be much lower. But with so many TV boxes on the market, how should you choose?

  If the budget is between 300 and 500, among the mainstream products, the three boxes of Aurora 5S, Tmall Magic Box 8Pro and Dangbei H3S are considered to be close in configuration. Since the general target has been selected, I simply start all at once, and tell you which one is more worth buying through comparison and evaluation.

  In order to save everyone’s time, let’s come to a conclusion this time:

  Tmall Magic Box 8Pro not only has better hardware parameters, but also performs better than Aurora 5S and Dangbei H in actual measurements. 3 S is even better and is the king of the three TV boxes.

  

  In order to facilitate a more intuitive comparison, I have summarized the hardware parameters of the three TV boxes and some measured data.

  After comparing the parameters in the chart with the actual measurements, you should have a general understanding of the three products. If you want to further understand the detailed process of this comparison, you can continue to read.

  Performance comparison:

  Like all smart devices, the quality of the TV box experience depends first and foremost on "performance", and as a user, the most intuitive perception of "performance" is nothing more than four aspects: one is the score score; the other is the boot speed; the third is the APP loading speed; and the fourth is the video startup speed. I also focused on the comparison test of the three TV boxes from these four aspects.

  [Performance score] Performance score is the most intuitive performance embodiment. The higher the score of a TV box, the stronger its overall performance. Using Antutu score measurement, the score of Tmall Magic Box 8Pro reached 55,812 points, the best score among the three TV boxes, followed by Tencent Aurora 5S, and Dangbei H3S.

  [Summary] Tmall Magic Box 8Pro > Tencent Aurora 5S > Dangbei H3S

  

  [Boot Speed] In the actual experience, the perception of the performance of a TV box actually starts from the moment you press the "power button". The faster the boot, the shorter the time we need to wait, and the faster we can see the program we want to watch. In the actual boot speed measurement, Tmall Magic Box 8Pro only took 17 seconds to boot, while when Bei H3S took 30 seconds, it was still at the bottom.

  [Summary] Tmall Magic Box 8Pro > Tencent Aurora 5S > Dangbei H3S

  

  [APP loading speed] APP loading speed is also a side reflection of performance, reflecting the scheduling of TV boxes for "performance". In order to ensure the accuracy of the test, I cleaned the background of each box before the test, and then turned on Kiwi TV, Cloud Audio-Visual Aurora and Mango TV respectively. In the test results, Tmall Magic Box 8Pro still leads in all aspects, even surpassing the second-place Aurora 5S in the loading speed of Kiwi TV and Cloud Audio-Visual Aurora by nearly 1s; while Aurora 5S and Dangbei H3S win or lose each other.

  [Summary] Tmall Magic Box 8Pro > Tencent Aurora 5S > Dangbei H3S

  

  [Video Startup Speed] The video startup speed reflects the optimization of a TV box for a certain video APP to a certain extent. It is easiest to ignore, but it also tests the TV box manufacturer’s attention to details. Here, Kumeow is used as the test APP to test the opening speed of the same video for three TV boxes. The measured Tmall Magic Box 8Pro took 1.28s, Aurora 5S took 1.72s, and Dangbei H3S took 1.93s.

  [Summary] Tmall Magic Box 8Pro > Tencent Aurora 5S > Dangbei H3S

  

  [Conclusion] After four rounds of testing, it is not difficult to see that the Tmall Magic Box 8 Pro performs better in all tests, making it the king of performance. Although the price of the Dangbei H3S is similar to that of the other two models, its performance is much worse.

  

  So what is the reason for the "performance gap"? In fact, it mainly comes from three aspects: the processor chip, the random access memory and the storage space.

  The first is the processor chip. It is the core hardware of the TV box’s performance, and its performance not only determines the running speed of the TV box, but also determines the decoding ability of the TV box. Among the three TV boxes, Tmall Magic Box 8Pro uses Amlogic S905x4, and its theoretical performance is the strongest among the three boxes, while the RK3566 used by Dangbei H3S, whether it is 22nm process or 512K cache, is far behind the other two TV boxes.

  Secondly, random access memory and storage space. The random access memory determines the fluency of the APP during continuous operation, and the storage space, as the hub of data storage and transmission, determines to a certain extent the number of APPs that can be installed on the TV box and the speed of reading and writing content. These two also have an important impact on the performance and user experience of the TV box, so generally when purchasing smart devices, the same price, we should tend to choose these two configurations larger. Among the three TV boxes, Aurora 5S and Tmall Magic Box 8Pro both give 4GB random access memory + 64GB storage space configuration, while Dangbei H3S is only 3GB + 32GB, which is also an important reason why Dangbei H3S is lagging behind as a whole.

  Audio-visual performance comparison

  As a TV box, its "audio and video performance" is more a test of the decoding ability of the processor chip and the support for audio standards.

  In terms of decoding capabilities, in the past, due to outdated technology, some old TV boxes could only support 1080P video decoding at most, so we had no way to output some 4K film sources through it. The three TV boxes tested this time were able to support 8K video decoding, which is completely sufficient for the mainstream 4K and even 8K source videos currently on the market.

  In terms of clarity, this time using an external U disk to play the local 4K 60fps Blu-ray original video to test, by comparing the three TV boxes to play the same frame of the same film source, it can be seen that the three TV boxes all support HDR 10 + Under the premise, the difference in image quality is actually not big.

  In addition to the image quality experience, the sound experience is equally important. Among the three TV boxes, Aurora 5S and Tmall Magic Box 8Pro have comprehensive support for audio standards. At present, Dolby Audio and DTS audio in mainstream movies can be output perfectly. When Bei H3S lacks support for these, when playing some movies using DTS audio, there will be only pictures and no sound, which will greatly affect the use experience.

  [Conclusion] In the audio-visual comparison, Tmall Magic Box 8Pro = Aurora 5S > Dangbei H3S, if you like to watch some original movies or videos, then Tmall mill box The 8Pro and Aurora 5S would be better options.

  

  Other comparisons

  In addition to performance and sound and picture, these three TV boxes also have some differentiated experiences in other aspects. As part of the overall experience, I have included them here to illustrate.

  [Network Support] A major application scenario of the TV box is to play videos on major video APPs or other networks. In addition to performance, it also has a strong dependence on the network. In terms of wireless network, Tmall Magic Box 8Pro adopts an omnidirectional three-antenna module design, which is better than the other two network signal stability In addition, Tmall Magic Box 8Pro and Aurora 5S provide an RJ45 standard gigabit wired network port more than Dangbei H3S, which is more stable than wireless network transmission. We use TV boxes every day. If possible, it is recommended that you choose a wired network for networking as much as possible, so that it is more stable when watching online videos or using a home NAS to watch local videos.

  [Summary] Tmall Magic Box 8Pro > Tencent Aurora 5S > Dangbei H3S

  

  [Remote Control] In addition to supporting Bluetooth connection, The remote control of Tmall Magic Box 8Pro also supports the "infrared learning" function, which can learn the infrared signal of the TV remote control, so that only the remote control of Tmall Magic Box 8Pro can realize the functions of turning on and off the TV and the TV box respectively, adjusting the volume, etc., which well solves the trouble of controlling the TV and the TV box to switch back and forth using two remote controls. This is also more user-friendly than the other two TV boxes.

  [Summary] Tmall Magic Box 8Pro > Tencent Aurora 5S = Dangbei H3S

  

  [Interface] In terms of interfaces, although all three TV boxes come standard with HDMI interfaces, Tmall Magic Box 8Pro and Dangbei H3S support HDMI 2.1 protocol, which is faster and more comprehensive in terms of transmission rate, resolution, and HDR and audio support than the HDMI 2.0 protocol supported by Aurora 5S.

  Although the USB ports on the three TV boxes "seem" to be 3.0 standard, in fact, only Tmall Magic Box 8Pro and Dangbei H3S are USB 3.0 standard, and the blue USB port of Aurora 5S is only USB 2.0 standard, which is reflected in daily use. If external storage is connected, then obviously the data transfer rate of Tmall Magic Box 8Pro and Dangbei H3S is much faster, and the video and file opening speed is also faster.

  [Summary] Dangbei H3S > Tmall Magic Box 8Pro > Tencent Aurora 5S

  


  [Appearance design] In terms of design, Tmall Magic Box 8Pro is the smallest of the three TV boxes, and it borrows the design style of vinyl record player, which looks very delicate. In contrast, Tencent Aurora 5S and Dangbei H3S are not only larger in size, but also relatively simple in design.

  experience summary

  In these three TV boxes, Tmall Magic Box 8Pro is better in terms of hardware configuration and real-world experience, and the price is lower than the other two. If you want to buy a TV box at this price, Tmall Magic Box 8Pro is undoubtedly a better choice.

Daqing Volvo XC60 Hot Promotion! The latest offer is 289,500! just this once

In the [Easy Car Daqing Local Car Market Promotion Channel], we sorted out the ongoing
Preferential activities. As a car that has attracted much attention, the current discount rate of Volvo XC60 is still amazing. The highest discount rate can even reach 132,400, and the lowest starting price is only 289,500. You can win a larger discount rate by clicking the "Inquiry" button in the quotation form. If you are looking for a practical and affordable model, you may wish to learn about the preferential situation of Volvo XC60.

Let’s take a look at the appearance of the Volvo XC60 first. The front face of the Volvo XC60 feels very round and lovely, and it is equipped with a straight waterfall grille, which looks sporty. Coupled with the headlights, the overall look has a certain sense of hierarchy. The car is equipped with LED daytime running lights, headlight height adjustment, automatic opening and closing, delayed closing and so on. Coming to the side of the car, the body size of the car is 4708MM*1902MM*1660MM, and the car adopts dynamic and lively lines, giving people a very round feeling at the side. With large-sized thick-walled tires, the shape is eye-catching. In the rear design, Volvo XC60′ s rear line is simple, the taillights are very beautiful, and with the unique exhaust pipe, the shape is more spiritual.

Coming into the Volvo XC60 car, the front face of the Volvo XC60 looks very young and fashionable, and the visual effect is good. The steering wheel design of this car is very fashionable and dynamic, made of genuine leather, with a high palm fit. From the central control point of view, with a 9-inch central control screen, the interior style is impressive and meets the aesthetic standards of most consumers. The dashboard and seats give people a good feeling, too. Let’s take a look. The car is equipped with a fashionable dashboard, which looks very tough. The car uses leather/fabric mixed seats, equipped with sports style seats, auxiliary seats with memory electric adjustment, seat with memory electric adjustment, seat proportion down and other functions, and the overall comfort and wrapping are not bad.

The power performance of Volvo XC60 is impressive, and you can feel abundant power output during driving. The design is fashionable and atmospheric, and the lines are smooth and natural, which leaves a deep impression on people. In addition, the space of the vehicle is also very spacious, which can provide a comfortable ride experience in both the front and rear rows. Generally speaking, the Volvo XC60 has excellent performance in power, appearance and space, and is a model worthy of recommendation.

The anchor said that the combination of these two scenes in the Qingming Festival is the Qingming of the home country!

Today is Tomb-Sweeping Day, and the anchor Kang Hui will start with a "walking ideological and political lesson" and poke the video ↓↓↓↓↓

Today is Tomb-Sweeping Day. During the Qingming Festival, we cherish the memory of heroes and ancestors, and many sweeping activities have been held in various places to express our respect and grief. Today, I saw a CCTV news push, saying that since 1995, every year on the eve of Tomb-Sweeping Day, teachers and students from Guyuan No.2 Middle School and Hongwen Middle School in Ningxia will walk to the Martyrs Cemetery, 54 kilometers back and forth. The mountain road is rugged, and 54 kilometers is not short. Why do you have to walk? The students said that this is an experience and a temper, and we should overcome the difficulties on the road like our ancestors; This is an expression of respect and a down-to-earth study. Only when you really walk on the road can you realize a lot of things. This "walking ideological and political course" has been going on for 29 years, and the content is really fascinating. I believe it will definitely enter the hearts of more students.

Today is the first day of the Qingming holiday, and there is a strong demand for travel such as hiking. Railway data show that about 17.5 million passengers are expected to be sent today. Go on road trip is very hot. Today, the number of people on the road is estimated to be 277 million. It is worth mentioning that, except for some central cities, the net inflow of tourists from Luoyang, Henan Province and Tianshui, Gansu Province is considerable. Everyone’s focus is on the historical and cultural scenic spots in Luoyang and the mala Tang in Tianshui. While feeling the historical details, they also want to experience rich food and unique cultural customs. Clear and clear, the scenic spot is popular, and vitality is seen in the flow.

Qingming is a special day. It is both a solar term and a festival. It is not only a natural portrayal of the flowering season, but also contains value pursuit and expectation. When the mountains and rivers are intact, China, who is beautiful in spring, meets China, who is cautious in pursuing the future and cherishing the memory of the martyrs, it is a combination of solar terms and festivals, and it is a relay for ancestors to travel with us through time and space as they wish. Pear blossoms rise, the world is clear, and the home country is always remembered.

Chief producer Yan Shuainan

Producer Li Zhe

Editor-in-Chief Wang Xingdong

Video Editor Yang Zhenjiang

Proofreading Gao Shaozhuo

Experts say it is beneficial to the practicality of foreign languages to cancel professional titles in many places.

  BEIJING, Beijing, December 23 (Lv Chunrong) Recently, Anhui made it clear that the national English proficiency test will be cancelled in 2017. As soon as the news came out, it aroused public concern about the abolition of English tests such as "English Band 4 and Band 6". College entrance examination English, CET-4 and CET-6, postgraduate entrance examination English, and professional title English … … How should the various English tests in China be reformed in the future?

  Will it be a trend for Anhui to cancel the national English proficiency test?

  A few days ago, Anhui Education Admissions Examination Institute issued a notice: According to the actual situation of the development of the national English proficiency test in Anhui Province, the national English proficiency test in Anhui Province will stop in 2017. As soon as the news came out, some netizens interpreted this as "Anhui will cancel the CET-4 and CET-6". After the official voice clarified, Anhui only canceled the national English proficiency test, not the CET-4 and CET-6.

  It is understood that the English name of the National English Test is Public English Test System (PETS), which is designed and implemented by the Examination Center of the Ministry of Education. Candidates, regardless of age, education, household registration and other backgrounds, can choose their own level as long as they have a certain English foundation.

  As the first province in China to cancel the national English proficiency test, why did Anhui stop the national English proficiency test? A few days ago, the relevant person in charge of the Anhui Education Admissions Examination Institute responded, "Because the number of people taking exams in our province has decreased in recent years. According to the actual examination work, after careful consideration, our province decided to stop this examination. "

  Xiong Bingqi, vice president of 21st Century Education Research Institute, analyzed in an interview with Zhongxin. com that the National English Test is a socialized test, and candidates can choose to take it. However, in recent years, because employers don’t care much about the test, not only Anhui, but also the number of applicants from all over the country is small.

  Cancel the title of English test expert in many places: it is beneficial to the practical use of foreign languages

  Different from the "minority" national English test, the English test for professional titles has received more attention, but it is also facing the possibility of being cancelled.

  In the view of Lin Ping, a special primary school teacher in Quanzhou, Fujian, the English title examination should be cancelled, which is of little use to practical work. She introduced that in order to evaluate the professional title, it took a lot of effort to pass the English professional title exam, which was not only time-consuming and laborious, but also cost a lot of money.

  It has become the consensus of many people to cancel the English test for professional titles. In March this year, the "Opinions on Deepening the Reform of the System and Mechanism of Talent Development" issued by the Central Committee clearly stated that the leading role of the employer in the evaluation of professional titles should be highlighted, the evaluation authority of professional titles should be reasonably defined and decentralized, and the independent evaluation of universities, research institutes and state-owned enterprises should be promoted; There is no uniform requirement for the professional title foreign language and computer application ability test.

  The reporter of Zhongxin. com noted that at present, at least Beijing, Guangdong, Henan, Shandong, Jiangsu and other places in China have issued policies to cancel the rigid requirements of foreign language examination for professional titles, and make it clear that "foreign languages for professional titles are not required uniformly" or "foreign languages for professional titles are not a necessary condition for job evaluation".

  Some people point out that the assessment of "English ability" was included in the professional title examination because different people were engaged in different jobs and it was difficult to establish standards. Therefore, it was both difficult and operational to adopt the unified English examination. In this regard, Xiong Bingqi analyzed that the English test for professional titles is led by the administration, and it is unreasonable to evaluate professional titles only after passing the test. Units should also assess employees’ actual working ability according to job requirements.

  Wang Xiaochu, then deputy director of the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, also said that the reform of foreign language titles has been carried out in an orderly manner, and the pilot direction has been divided according to different professional fields. In some cases, it is not possible to avoid the test and prevent one-size-fits-all and formalism. The reform will make the foreign language of professional titles more practical and effective for practical work.

  Should CET-4 and CET-6 also be socialized?

  Similarly, as one of the popular English tests, CET-4 and CET-6 have also been controversial in recent years. "Cheating problem", "CET-4 and CET-6 are linked to degrees" and "students care about certificates rather than abilities". Many problems derived from CET-4 and CET-6 also make many people call for their socialization. Like TOEFL, IELTS and GRE, students can choose according to their personal needs.

  Some experts have pointed out that CET-4 and CET-6 have played an important role in promoting and improving the English level of college students and the quality of school teaching in China. However, with the development of society, science and technology and education, CET-4 and CET-6 can no longer meet the needs of the country for the quality of personnel training, and this examination has become an obstacle to deepening the reform of college English teaching.

  Xiong Bingqi suggested that CET-4 and CET-6 should be socialized. He pointed out that there are always scandals such as cheating in exams, which shows that there are problems in the current exams. Under the administrative-led reasons, without the participation of social organizations, the quality and credibility of the exams are gradually weakened.

  The national English proficiency test will be launched before 2020.

  College entrance examination English, CET-4 and CET-6 English, and professional title English … … At different stages of life, many people will encounter English exams with different forms, backgrounds and purposes. Can many English tests be unified into one test?

  In this regard, some people think that it is difficult to meet all the needs with a ruler in setting up a unified English-speaking national examination. A unified English proficiency test should avoid the tendency of homogenization of English education, and should also consider how to reform the existing examination system, teaching mode, teaching materials and examinations.

  The Ministry of Education announced in November this year that the main body of the China English Proficiency Scale has been developed, and the National English Proficiency Test is planned to be gradually launched before 2020. This means that China will establish a unified English assessment system in the future.

  Lin Huiqing, Vice Minister of Education, previously revealed that the main body of the China English Proficiency Scale has been developed, and it is expected to be officially released in 2017. This is the first competency standard covering English teaching, learning and assessment at all stages of education in China. It will help to solve the problems of different English test standards, separation of teaching and testing objectives and incoherent teaching objectives at all stages in China, and realize "one-stop" English teaching and mutual recognition of various learning achievements.

  Liu Jianda, vice president of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, also revealed to the media that the newly formulated rating scale will be divided into nine grades. Among them, Grade 1 and Grade 2 roughly correspond to the primary school level, Grade 3 corresponds to junior high school, Grade 4 corresponds to senior high school, Grade 5 and Grade 6 corresponds to universities, Grade 7 corresponds to English majors, and Grade 8 and Grade 9 correspond to high-end foreign language talents.

  "This level of examination standard can also be used for multiple purposes, reducing repeated examinations and meeting various needs such as teaching evaluation, further studies and employment." Liu Jianda said. (End)

From "Border War" to "National Entertainment": How Rugby Became the First Sport in America

"border war"

On August 30th, 1856, a fierce battle broke out in the small town of Sabato, Kansas, USA. The warring parties were neither white men and Indians, nor Jiang Yang thieves and local people, but abolitionists from the north and militia from Missouri, a slave-holding state in the south. About 400 heavily armed Missouri militiamen attacked this small town guarded by the famous abolitionist leader John Brown. Being outnumbered, john brown and the abolitionists finally had to retreat, and Mr. Sabato was also looted. The incident became a microcosm of the Kansas Civil War.

In 1854, the US Congress passed the kansas-nebraska act, allowing Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether to join the United States of America as a "free state" or a "slave state" by referendum. This is tantamount to the abolition of the Missouri compromise in fact, which intensified the contradiction between the north and the south on the issue of slavery.

After that, a large number of abolitionists from the north and southerners who advocated the maintenance of slavery flooded into Kansas, hoping to win the referendum by means of large-scale immigration in the short term. Under the tense atmosphere, a series of violent conflicts broke out between the two sides of the contradiction, which eventually led to a Kansas version of the "civil war." This mini-war, known as "bloody Kansas", is often regarded by later generations as a prelude to the American Civil War or a scaled-down version of the Civil War. In January 1861, after this bloody baptism, Kansas finally joined the Union as a free state. However, only three months later, the Civil War officially started. At the beginning of the war, out of revenge, a group of Kansas militia named Jayhawks attacked and looted several towns in Missouri. Later, a local armed force calling itself "Fighting Tigers" rose in Missouri to confront it. As a result, the two sides continued their hatred since "bloody Kansas" on the battlefield.

In May 1865, the Civil War officially ended. Nearly 30 years after the smoke of the Civil War dispersed, the blood feud between Kansas and Missouri did not dissipate, and even found a new battlefield to prolong the old hatred and renew the new hatred. On Halloween in 1891, the University of Kansas and the University of Missouri met head-on in an American Football game. Coincidentally, the names of these two college teams are "Kansas Jayhawks" and "Missouri Tigers". In this extremely fierce game, the University of Kansas won by 22-10, which seemed to swear that it was the winner of the civil war again, while the University of Missouri, which was unwilling, stubbornly continued to challenge. Therefore, the two teams agreed to have a contest every year. In the end, this football game not only became a competition between two universities, but also became an honor struggle between two states. The football match between "Jieying" and "Tiger" was even called "Border War" because of the hot and even explosive atmosphere. Since 1891, this "border war" has been fought for 120 years, and it was not until the University of Missouri announced its departure from the "Big 12 Conference" in 2011 that it called a truce. In the final year of the competition, the University of Missouri crushed the University of Kansas 24-10.Revenge for one’s ancestors. During these 120 years, this football game has become a projection of the political, military and historical disputes between the two States.

The "border war" between "Jieying" and "Tiger" lasted for 120 years.

Transformation of American football

George Carlin, a famous American comedian, once described the war metaphor of American football in a famous paragraph: "Baseball is a pastime game in the 19th century, while rugby is a tit-for-tat for industrialization in the 20th century; When you watch baseball, you will feel like going to a picnic, while when you watch football, you will want to kill your opponent at least 27 times. The goal of rugby is clear, and all actions revolve around the Quarterback, the’ battlefield general’. He has to observe the enemy lines and launch a surprise attack, find his catcher in the chaotic army and pass the ball accurately. He must lead an army into enemy territory and try his best to tear a hole in the enemy’s defense line! "

In the world of American football, especially college football, similar and tense feuds are everywhere, and even become one of the biggest selling points of the game, attracting the attention of the whole state and the whole country. For example, the football confrontation between the University of Texas and the University of Oklahoma is called "Red River Showdown", because in 1931, the National Guard of Texas and Oklahoma had a gun battle over the ownership of a bridge across the Red River between the two States. The feud between the University of Michigan and Ohio University can be traced back to the conflict between the two States around the border demarcation in 1835. Since 1897, the fighting between the two schools on behalf of the two States on the football field has become the most wonderful, intense and even tragic rivalry in the history of North American sports. Before and after the game, Ohio will hold "Beat Michigan Week". On the day before the 2006 World War II, Bo Schembechler, the meritorious coach of the University of Michigan, died of a heart attack. After that, every year before the Ohio University, the University of Michigan will play Bo Schembechler’s cry "Team!" before his death. Team! Team! " (The Team! The Team! The Team! ) to boost morale.

The reason why American college football has become the carrier of American social tradition and even national hatred is closely related to its development and evolution to some extent. In the eyes of many foreigners, American football players seem to be all rough and tough men with big arms and round waist, developed limbs and mostly simple minds. However, American football was originally popular in college campuses all over the United States as elite and intellectual sports. In fact, even today, all professional players who participate in the National Football League need to take an IQ test before they can qualify. At the beginning of American football’s popularity in universities in the 19th century, it happened that the movement of "Physical Christianity" was in the ascendant. This Christian faction, which originated in England, advocates that sports can not only exercise the physique, but also improve the spiritual character of Christians. And a strong Christian is a symbol of God’s glory. Influenced by it, a very important task of YMCA is to advocate young people to actively participate in sports. The rapid popularity of American football in American universities also relies on the east wind of "strong Christianity" and "YMCA", and also provides religious legitimacy for hot-blooded college students to participate in such intense and even violent sports. As a social elite, college students have naturally become spokesmen and defenders of historical traditions in various States and regions.

In 1869, Princeton University and Rutgers College played the first American football game in history. As a sport born out of rugby, American football is even more intense, and college students are injured and even killed because of the game. In 1905, as many as 18 famous college students were injured and died in the competition, which became a major news in the United States at that time and alarmed then President theodore roosevelt. As a "progressive", Roosevelt Sr. issued a statement demanding that the rules of American football must be revised to ensure the safety of players, and young people who should be the pillars of the country should not be allowed to die in vain on the court. In the end, the rules of American football changed decisively-players were allowed to pass the ball forward instead of passing it back or flat like rugby, which gradually transformed the sport into what it is today.

Athletes singing hymns, taken in the gymnasium of YMCA Training School in Massachusetts, USA in 1909.

"national entertainment"

Although as early as the 1920s, professional football games, represented by the National Football League (NFL), appeared, but their commercialization was not high. In contrast, baseball, which has been professional and commercialized as early as the 19th century, is the "first sport" for citizens and workers. At that time, many professional football teams were "attached" to professional baseball clubs. Until today, people familiar with American sports can easily find many football teams and baseball teams with the same names, such as Giants, Cardinals, Redskins, Pirates and so on. In addition, quite a few early professional American football teams were actually in a "semi-professional" state, and players had other businesses besides playing. For example, the old team with a long history-"Green Bay Packer" is a team composed of local paper packers, which started with a sponsorship fee of $500 from the boss. Later, in order to ensure the normal operation of the team, the packers turned to issue the team’s shares to local residents, and finally let the team continue to this day in the form of "crowdfunding", even in the league.

In fact, until the eve of World War II, the campus elite label of American football remained unchanged, and most professional players were also graduates from universities, including many famous schools such as Ivy League. Many of the stars of universities or professional teams in those days later became world-famous politicians and social elites, and even entered the White House. Former US President Ford was once the star center of the University of Michigan. During the two years from 1932 to 1933, he not only helped the school achieve unbeaten results in the season, but also witnessed the epic battle between his alma mater and Ohio University. After graduating from college, Ford was recruited by professional scouts. After rejecting the invitation of Green Bay Packers and Detroit Lions, he went to law school to continue his studies and enter politics.

Byron White, one of the most important justices in the history of the United States Supreme Court in the 20th century, was the absolute main force and the star of the football team of his alma mater, Colorado State University. In 1937, he was even selected as the best team of college football in the United States, leaving more than ten competitive records on the field during his school days. In the second year after graduation, White went to the Pittsburgh Pirates (later the famous Pittsburgh Steelers) to play a professional game for one year. After winning the Best Newcomer Award with the highest rookie salary, White "hung up his boots" and went to Oxford University to study law. However, due to the outbreak of the European War, he had to return to China and transfer to Yale Law School. While studying at Yale, White also took time off to participate in professional competitions, played for Detroit Lions in 1940 and 1941, and finally became the record holder of "the longest charge". In 1942, White was drafted into the U.S. Navy and ended his football career. In 1962, the former football star became a Supreme Court Justice at the age of 44.

Byron White

After the end of World War II, especially after the popularization of television, rugby finally ushered in its own commercialization opportunity. Because the NFL was still an emerging professional sports league at that time, it was more willing to embrace such an emerging product as TV broadcasting. As early as 1848, the normalized broadcast of football matches began to appear on TV. Throughout the 1950s, ABC, NBC and CBS began to broadcast important NFL games one after another, and the broadcasting fee for championship games has reached a million dollars. The NFL, which has tasted the sweetness, is even willing to modify the schedule and rules for TV broadcast to enhance the viewing as much as possible and attract more viewers.

First of all, in order to ensure the visibility of the game and avoid the disparity between teams, the TV broadcasting rights of NFL are negotiated by the league as a whole with major TV networks, and the broadcasting fees obtained are shared equally by all teams, thus ensuring the relative balance of financial resources of each team. Therefore, many Americans jokingly call the NFL a "communist" professional sports league. Secondly, in order to cooperate with the prime time of TV viewing at night, NFL became the first professional sports league to change the important game from afternoon to evening for the first time, and created the tradition of professional sports night games.

Prior to this, Major League Baseball’s important games were usually held on weekend afternoons. After that, Sunday Night Football and Monday Night Football became the trump cards of ratings. In 1967, the American Football Confederation and the original National Football League merged to form a new NFL, and then a new annual championship event, Super Bowl, was established.

As a result, the "Super Bowl" quickly became the highest-rated TV program in the United States and lasted for a long time. Since 1991, the ratings of "Super Bowl" have remained above 40%, and the ratings have been stable above 45% since 2010. In 2016, the audience of the 50th Super Bowl in the United States reached 167 million, and the advertising fee per second reached an astonishing $5 million, almost 118 times that of the 1st Super Bowl in 1967. The "Super Bowl" halftime show has become the biggest stage for American performing stars to dream about. During the 50 years when the "Super Bowl" economy flourished, professional American football finally replaced professional baseball and became the most popular and commercially valuable sports game in the United States.

Similarly, in order to attract more audiences, the venue of the "Super Bowl" is not the home of the two champion teams, but the third place chosen in advance. In the view of NFL management, this arrangement is to show that the "Super Bowl" is a national holiday, not a special welfare that residents of the cities where the two teams are located can enjoy, making it a veritable "national entertainment".

(This article was published in Wenhui Scholar on February 3rd. The original title was From "Border War" to "National Entertainment": American Football Past and Present, which was reprinted by The Paper with authorization. Now the title and subtitle are drawn up by the editor. )

Tian Zhuangzhuang’s mother Yu Lan: Making a movie is "her blessing"

Beijing, July 4 (Reporter Song Yusheng) At 21: 07 pm on June 27, Yu Lan, a famous film performance artist who played the classic role "Jiang Jie" in the movie "Eternal Life in Fire", died in Beijing at the age of 99.
On July 1, the reporter saw in Beijing Sino-Japanese Friendship Hospital that the small farewell hall was filled with wreaths and elegiac couplets, and Yu Lan’s body was lying quietly in the middle of the farewell hall.
On that day, Ye Xiangzhen, the daughter of Marshal Ye Jianying, and Li Xuejian, Yu Lan’s nephew and famous performance artist, went to pay their respects. Beijing Film Academy and china children film association also sent wreaths. Yu Lan’s family and friends accepted an interview with Zhongxin. com.
On July 1st, in the farewell hall of Beijing Sino-Japanese Friendship Hospital, people from all walks of life came to pay tribute to Ms. Yu Lan, a famous China film performance artist. Zhongxin.com reporter Li Junshe
"Movies are her blessing."
Yu Lan, formerly known as Yu Peiwen, is one of the "22 movie stars" in New China. She won the Best Actress Award at the Moscow International Film Festival and the Lifetime Achievement Award at the 27th Chinese Film Golden Rooster Award. Starring works include Cuigang Red Flag, Longxugou, Lin Jiapu, Revolutionary Family, Eternal Life in Fire and so on. Among them, her role of "Jiang Jie" in "Eternal Life in Fire" is most well known to the audience.
The picture shows Ms. Ye Xiangzhen (second from right), the daughter of Marshal Ye Jianying and former director of China News Service (who directed Yuan Ye, etc.), who went to the China-Japan Friendship Hospital on July 1 to mourn Yu Lan. China News Service reporter Han Kai photo
In public memory, the name Yu Lan is inseparable from the new China movies.
According to Tian Zhuangzhuang, the son of Blue and a famous director, it is "her blessing" for her mother to enter the film industry. "Without the spread of movies, she could not be recognized and recognized by so many people. Of course, this is also related to her efforts and creativity."
The picture shows actor Li Xuejian mourning in the mourning hall. Zhongxin.com reporter Li Junshe
In 1938, 17-year-old Yu Lan left Beiping for Yan ‘an, and then studied at Yan ‘an Anti-Japanese Military and Political University. After school, she often participates in various amateur drama performances. In the spring of 1940, Yu Lan entered Lu Xun Art College and became an actor. Since then, she has embarked on the road of art.. After the founding of New China, Yu Lan began to contact movies, and her identity changed from a stage actor to a film actor.
In the autumn of 1949, Yu Lan first appeared on the screen, starring in the film The Warrior in White. Since then, she has appeared in films such as Cuigang Red Flag, Longxugou, Lin Jiapu and Revolutionary Family, and became a "star" on the film stage of New China.
Yu Lan plays "Jiang Jie" in Eternal Life in Fire. Screenshot of movie
Yu Lan’s most well-known role is Jiang Jie in Eternal Life in Fire. This film, which was released in 1965, later became the memory of several generations.
Tian Zhuangzhuang told reporters that there are many excellent people in the film industry, but there are not so many people who can pay for the film for a long time and really love it. "I think my mother is one of them. She really loves this career and movies, and she will spare no effort to support anything she can do about movies."
Hou Keming still remembers that the last time Yu Lan left Beijing for a trip was in November 2017 to attend the China International Children’s Film Festival. "At that time, she was 96 years old. As soon as she knew that a film festival would be held, she would go. In fact, she had not been out of Beijing for several years. But this film festival is her own child, and she said she must go. "
In 2018, 97-year-old Yu Lan starred in "Those Women" filmed to commemorate the 73rd anniversary of the victory of the Anti-Japanese War. Although there are not many scenes, she is extremely happy. She said, "It’s great to be able to act! I really want to play it again. " In the same year, Yu Lan also starred in China Film Co., Ltd.’ s public welfare film Everything is Like You.
When Tian Zhuangzhuang recalled the film made by Lan in her later years, she said frankly, "She felt great in acting. Even at this age, she is still an actress, and she will have a good way to deal with the role." (End)
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