The three-dimensional parking garage of the Third Hospital of Beijing Medical University opened the queuing parking building for medical vehicles, but it was "empty"

Qianlong-France Evening Joint Report (Reporter Gong Zhu) In order to alleviate the traffic congestion and parking difficulties around the hospital, last year, the Third Hospital of Peking University started to build a "mechanical three-dimensional parking garage", increasing the original 30 parking spaces to nearly 300. It is understood that the "parking building" was officially put into use in June.

Has the chronic disease of "full of cars" been cured?

At 2 o’clock in the afternoon of June 11th, the reporter came to the Third Hospital of Beijing Medical University, which is located in Huayuan North Road, and saw that the citizens who came to see the doctor had already driven to the third traffic light on the road outside the hospital. One of the drivers told the reporter that it took nearly two hours to get to the hospital gate.

However, the mechanical three-dimensional parking garage officially put into use recently is in a "semi-paralyzed" state, and the building is "empty".

The parking administrator told the reporter that the new parking building has restrictions on the size of vehicles, and vehicles exceeding this size still need to park in the ground parking lot. In addition, because the ground parking lot and the three-dimensional parking building "share" an entrance, so "the big car is blocked in front, and when the ground parking lot is vacant, the small car should also be blocked in the back." The administrator said.


Vehicles waiting in line for medical treatment are "empty"

It is understood that in the past, there were only ground parking lots in the Third Hospital of Beijing Medical University, and the number of parking spaces was small. Parking in the hospital had to wait in line at the door for a long time, which led to the consistent congestion at the surrounding intersections.

In order to improve the parking difficulty in hospitals, the foundation stone laying ceremony of mechanical three-dimensional parking garage was opened in the Third Hospital of Beijing Medical University on May 29th last year. It is understood that the three-dimensional parking garage is located between the hospital beauty center building and the outpatient building, covering an area of 576 square meters. The parking building has a total of 12 floors and 24 meters high, with a total of 281 parking spaces, using vertical lifting double-column tower garage technology.

At 2 o’clock in the afternoon of June 11th, the reporter came to the Third Hospital of Peking University, which is located in Huayuan North Road, and saw that the vehicles driven by the citizens who came to see the doctor were lined up for nearly 1 kilometer, and they were discharged from the hospital gate to Longxiang Road (outside the third traffic light of the hospital). One of the drivers in the front told the reporter that he had been in line for nearly two hours and still had no vacancy.

The reporter saw at the scene that the ground parking lot was "hard to find", but in the mechanical three-dimensional parking garage that was officially put into use recently, it was "empty" and almost no vehicles were parked.

In this regard, a parking administrator told reporters that the new parking building has a small capacity specification, which limits the size of vehicles. Vehicles exceeding this size, such as medium and large vehicles, still need to park in the ground parking lot, and even vehicles within the size specification often encounter situations where they can’t park, so most parking spaces are empty.

Find business opportunities at the entrance of 39 yuan parking service Hospital   

Parking difficulty has become a major social problem, but from another perspective, helping users solve parking difficulties has also become a business opportunity.

At the intersection outside the Third Hospital of Beijing Medical University, the reporter saw a man wearing a blue vest patrolling back and forth. He came forward and asked that he was the driver of "e-driver" and usually helped park around here during the day.

The man told reporters that his main purpose is to "help drivers who are in a hurry to stop and queue up for them". He has parked three cars today. If the time does not exceed 1 hour, the fee for one trip to parking service is 39 yuan.

In addition, some netizens in Weibo broke the news that there were arbitrary charges in the nearby parking lot. The reporter visited a roadside parking lot opposite the Third Hospital of Beijing Medical University and found that there was no "arbitrary charges". The parking administrator told the reporter that the parking fee is 10 yuan/hour, and there is no charge within 15 minutes.

Explore the cause

The specifications are limited, and the garage can only enter the "car" 

The reporter saw at the scene that the new three-dimensional parking garage in the hospital is located between the beauty center building and the outpatient building of the hospital. There are six garage entrances, and each entrance is guarded by a parking administrator, and the driver is instructed to park the berth smoothly.

"Most parking spaces in the parking building are empty." A parking manager told reporters that the parking garage is currently "paraplegic". He explained that "the new parking building has restrictions on the size of vehicles, so the big car can’t get in and the small car can’t stop. However, because the ground parking lot and the three-dimensional parking garage in the courtyard have to enter from this entrance, the big car is blocked in front, and the small car will be blocked in the back when the ground parking lot is empty."

The reporter noticed that there are obvious vehicle size signs at the entrance of the parking garage. Among them, the bus size is less than or equal to 5.1 meters in length, less than or equal to 1.85 meters in width, less than or equal to 1.55 meters in height and less than or equal to 2.2 tons in weight.

However, the reality is that for comfort, people are more willing to buy SUVs or medium-sized and large cars now. Moreover, at the hospital site, the reporter also noticed that the citizens who came to see a doctor mainly drove such vehicles, and small cars accounted for a minority. Moreover, in the common models, most of the vehicle sizes are beyond the capacity specifications of the three-dimensional garage, which is easy to be "stuck". Therefore, car owners can only wait for the original few ground parking spaces.

In addition, the reporter learned at the scene that even the models that meet the specifications are basically in line with the "garage door". It is difficult for drivers to drive the car in one step, and some novices even need to get off the car repeatedly to check the distance.

"I have reversed the car several times. If I am a novice, I guess I can’t stop!" A car owner who just parked his car said that he spent nearly an hour in line today.

Coach Zhang of Jingshun Driving School also said that even the old drivers have to rub a few steering wheels to get in, which is very difficult for novices. Coach Zhang also said, "Generally, the open space in front of the garage entrance should be 1.5 to 2 times the length of the car, and the width of the garage should be 60cm wider than the car body (excluding the rearview mirror). Obviously, the width of the garage and the distance before the entrance are not enough, so it is very difficult to stop."

The reporter called the Third Hospital of Beijing Medical University about the car capacity design of the parking building. As of press time, we have not received any relevant reply.

Development and Reform Commission: China’s football will become world-class by 2050 at the latest.

  Yesterday, the National Development and Reform Commission issued the Medium-and Long-term Development Plan for Football in China. Planning for the near future to 2020, the medium term to 2030, and the long-term outlook to 2050. The national men’s football team ranks among the top in Asia, and the women’s football team returns to the ranks of world-class teams. In 2050, China will strive to achieve the goal of being a first-class football power.

  ◎ goal

  China Football Dream in 34 Years

  From this year to 2020, China football will take laying a foundation as the development goal, and accelerate the development of campus football. There are 20,000 national characteristic football schools, and the number of primary and secondary school students who regularly participate in football exceeds 30 million. The number of people who regularly participate in football in the whole society exceeds 50 million. There are more than 70,000 football fields in China, making every 10,000 people have 0.5 to 0.7 football fields. In terms of professional football, cultivate two or three first-class and world-famous football clubs in Asia.

  From 2021 to 2030, the campus football, social football and professional football systems operated effectively. Every ten thousand people have a football field. The organization and competition level of professional football leagues in China has reached the first class in Asia, the national men’s soccer team ranks among the top in Asia, the women’s soccer team has returned to the ranks of the world’s top teams, and the image of a big sports country has been further enhanced.

  From 2031 to 2050, we will strive to achieve the goal of being a first-class football power, realize the football dreams of Chinese children and make contributions to the world football.

  ◎ measures

  Encourage undergraduate colleges to set up football colleges.

  In terms of campus football, the Plan requires that football should be included in the teaching content of physical education class, a football teaching guide should be formulated, and online football courses should be developed and made available free of charge.

  The plan puts forward: it is necessary to speed up the training of campus football coaches and referees, incorporate campus football teachers into the national training plan for kindergarten teachers in primary and secondary schools, and train 50 thousand full-time and part-time football teachers; In terms of competitions, a national four-level league of universities, high schools, junior high schools and primary schools will be established.

  In order to encourage students to participate in football activities for a long time, the Plan requires that the proportion of football-specific students recruited by physical education majors in colleges and universities should be increased, students from other majors should be encouraged to take football courses, and qualified undergraduate colleges should set up football colleges and actively set up football majors in secondary vocational schools.

  The construction of football field should be incorporated into land planning.

  The Plan requires that 60,000 football fields be repaired, rebuilt and built nationwide, so that every 10,000 people will have 0.5 to 0.7 football fields, including 40,000 campus football fields and 20,000 social football fields.

  In terms of campus venues, each primary and secondary school with football characteristics should have more than one football field, and qualified colleges and universities should have more than one standard football field, and improve the utilization rate of school football venues. Promote the construction of football stadiums in communities. Each county-level administrative region has at least two social standard football fields, and a football field with more than five players should be built in the newly-built residential area of the city where conditions permit.

  In terms of security, the "Planning" requires that the construction of football fields be included in urban and rural planning, the overall land use planning and the annual land use plan, and it is strictly forbidden to change the land use of football fields; Real estate and land occupied by football venues can enjoy preferential property tax and urban land use tax according to regulations; The price of water, electricity, gas and heat for football venues and facilities shall not be higher than the general industrial standards.

  Perfecting safeguard policies to attract overseas talents.

  The Plan requires that the number of registered players should be gradually increased, and the discovery and selection mechanism should be optimized, so that excellent football players with excellent skills and high literacy can stand out.

  Implement the overseas talent introduction plan, attract high-level football talents to work in China, and improve relevant policies such as entry and exit, residence, medical care and children’s education. On the other hand, football professionals are encouraged to study abroad and more professionals are supported to work in international organizations.

  The Plan encourages communities and enterprises to set up corresponding posts to attract retired athletes and coaches to engage in social football guidance. Accelerate the training of professional football coaches and community football instructors, and the number of rotation training will increase year by year, reaching 10,000 in 2020.

  When Beijing landed.

  There are 200 characteristic football schools in 16 districts.

  Yesterday, the reporter learned from the Beijing Municipal Education Commission that 200 schools with football characteristics have been identified in 16 districts of Beijing, including 113 primary schools and 87 other schools.

  Last year, Beijing studied and formulated the "Three-year Plan for Promoting the Development of Campus Football", and planned to invest 50 million yuan for football education in primary and secondary schools. At the same time, the football project will be included in the optional test item of the 2016 senior high school entrance examination physical education test (not necessarily tested). In the newly-made football development plan, the Beijing Municipal Education Commission requires qualified primary schools to offer a football class every week. At present, some qualified primary schools have started teaching.

  In terms of venues, all districts are also actively looking for solutions. Last year, Haidian District allocated 10 million yuan to build 10 "cage football fields" to solve the problem of small football venues on campus.

  Introducing foreign teachers to support suburban schools.

  In the construction of football teachers, Beijing has not only sent teachers to France and Britain, but also introduced foreign coaches to Beijing. It is understood that foreign coaches introduced in Beijing will focus on sending them to schools in the outer suburbs.

  At the beginning of this year, three coaches from the Netherlands have arrived in Beijing in advance to teach in three primary schools in Daxing, Fangshan and Xicheng District until the end of August this year. Beijing has also sent a team of coaches based on the Guoan Club to Pinggu District. At the same time, youth coaches hired from Japan go to Pinggu every month to carry out teaching work. In addition, Beijing Football Club has signed a strategic cooperation agreement with Yanqing District to support the development of campus football, and when the time is ripe, it will also radiate to other outer suburbs.

  In addition, at the beginning of this year, the Beijing Youth Campus Football Reserve Team Construction Football Winter Training Camp has also been launched. A total of 106 first echelon players were selected from 16 districts in the city, of which 40% were girls.

  In the training camp, Pei Encai, a famous football player, served as the head coach, Ma Yuanan, a former China women’s football coach, served as the technical consultant, Wang Liping and Kun Wang, former main players of women’s football, Liu Lifu and Lu Jianren, former famous players of Beijing team Li Gongyi and Gu Daquan, former Beijing women’s football coach, served as the head coaches of various echelons.

  Famous football commentator Jin Shan

  Campus football and professional football are expected to merge.


  Regarding the "Planning", Jin Shan, a famous football commentator, said: "What was introduced in the State Council before was an idea, and this time it is a concrete measure supported by policies, which has brought positive effects. In response to the problems that have arisen in the past year, the introduction of specific plans has been solved. "

  Teacher Jin Shan pointed out that some people also raised concerns about the specific content of the plan. "For example, it is not as easy as you think to find tens of thousands of qualified teachers and cultivate them to be able to teach. Besides the venue, there are 0.5 to 0.7 football fields per 10,000 people, especially in places with crowded land in big cities. It is still doubtful whether this goal can be achieved. "

  Jin Shan also pointed out that the professional league in China has been developed for 21 years, and it can’t be said that there is no progress, but the normal system was broken from the beginning, which led to the serious derailment of campus football and professional football. After the introduction of this specific plan, people can see the prospect of the real integration of campus football and professional football. "Just like Japan and South Korea, middle school students show super football talent, and college students can also participate in professional leagues. Only in this way can China’s professional football selection have a broad and solid foundation, and the take-off of China football is even more exciting. "

  Fu Qiang, Executive Vice President of Huaxia Happiness Club

  Our established plan will be fine-tuned.

  The promulgation of "Planning" has attracted the attention of various clubs. A number of club leaders said frankly that they should seize the great situation of the country’s vigorous development of football and fully implement the plans made by the club according to itself.

  When talking about the specific planning of the club, Fu Qiang, executive vice president of Huaxia Happiness Club, said, "Last year, Huaxia Happiness invited a consulting company to make strategic planning for the club. After nearly two months of in-depth research in the club’s operation, publicity, youth training, brand, competition, logistics and other specific departments, the other party has formulated a medium-term plan for the club for 5 to 10 years. Our current work is also pushing forward according to the plan formulated at that time. "

  Fu Qiang stressed that the situation of developing football in the country is excellent now, but the plans made for their respective clubs will not change. "We won’t make strategic adjustments in the general direction now, just fine-tuning some details. After all, the formulation of strategic planning is very cautious, and it was decided after long-term investigation and visit. So once it is formulated, it must be fully implemented. "

  Ma Chengquan, Chairman of Super League Company

  Policy no longer stops talking.

  Ma Chengquan, chairman of Super League, said: "It is a good thing to plan it specifically, which will definitely promote the development of football in China."

  Ma Chengquan said that the planning will play a positive role in strengthening the construction of the club, improving the quality of players and strengthening the organization level of the event.

  Ma Chengquan pointed out that the plan was issued by the National Development and Reform Commission, indicating that from top to bottom, all walks of life began to pay attention to caring about football, and also made the previous policy guidelines that only stayed in the mouth really have a basis for landing. "I look forward to the relevant departments, such as the National Development and Reform Commission, the General Administration of Sports, the Education Commission, etc., all based on the planning requirements, earnestly implementing them and cooperating with each other, and really making great efforts to improve the football level in China." Ma Chengquan stressed.

  Jinghua Times reporter Zhang Xiaomin Guo Ying

The Mid-Autumn National Day holiday "Mountain Walking" became popular, and the hikers became younger and younger.

  China News Service, Nanchang, October 4 (Reporter Wu Pengquan) During the Mid-Autumn National Day holiday this year, Tan Mengling and his girlfriend, born after 1995, started a "Mountain Walk" tour in the Yuling Scenic Area of Wuyuan, Jiangxi.

  Looking for autumn on foot, "basking in autumn" in ancient villages, and picking fruits to eat autumn … … In the autumn season, the "double festivals" meet, and various new autumn games featuring "going up the mountain and going to the sea" are constantly emerging, and "Mountain Walk" in the countryside and mountains has gradually become a new fashion for young people in China to travel during holidays.

  According to the public comment data of the third-party consumer review website, since September, the search volume related to "basking in autumn" on the platform has increased by 220% year-on-year, the note raiders have increased by nearly 100%, and the search volume of "outdoor hiking" has increased by 370%. Young people are the "main force" in search, and the group aged 20 to 35 accounts for over 80%.

  In autumn, residents of Wuyuan Qiling Scenic Area dry brightly colored crops such as peppers, corn and peanuts on the drying rack. The unique custom of "drying in autumn" has attracted many young tourists to come and punch in.

  "Take advantage of the holiday to stay away from the hustle and bustle of the city and go into the countryside of Shan Ye to pursue ‘ Poetry and Distance ’ You can not only feel the charm of folk culture, but also get close to nature and relax. " Tan Mengling said.

  Many netizens left a "pit avoidance guide" in the note raiders and scenic spot evaluation area — — "It is recommended to take the cable car after three o’clock in the afternoon, which takes more than four hours. Don’t miss the night view at night"; "Booking a homestay should be at the foot of the mountain, and it is convenient to go up the mountain"; "Remember to bring some snacks up the mountain, the hotel is slightly more expensive" … …

  Wugong Mountain, Pingxiang, Jiangxi Province, which attracted many night-climbing "special forces" and college students from all over China this summer, continued to gain popularity during this "Double Festival" holiday. Young tourists and parents with children bring their own tents or buy tents to "camp" in Wugong Mountain. The two camps of Guanyintang and Jinding Baihefeng even show a fiery situation of "one account is hard to find".

  "I used to brush the alpine meadow and sunrise sea of clouds in Wugong Mountain on the short video platform, and I was very yearning for it, so I invited friends to experience the romance of Wugong Mountain this holiday." In the view of Liu Sijin, a 26-year-old Hunan tourist, measuring mountain peaks with footsteps, following the wind in the mountains, feeling the breath and beauty of nature, and passing by every grass and tree will make people feel better.

  Autumn is crisp, which is a good time for hiking. The reporter found out that in addition to some popular scenic spots such as Mount Taishan in Shandong and Wugong Mountain in Jiangxi, the "Mountain Walk" route has already been launched in Zhaoqing, Guangdong, Lishui, Zhejiang and Qingdao, Shandong, inviting citizens and tourists to feel the beauty of nature.

  In recent years, hiking has become the first choice for outdoor sports for many people, and it is becoming younger. The "World Mountain Tourism Development Trend Report 2023" released recently pointed out that the new generation of tourists have more detailed and in-depth hobbies in outdoor sports, nature studies, and non-legacy visits, and are willing to pay more for them.

  "Mountain Walk is a way for young people to get close to nature, relax, keep fit and get to know their peers." Tu Longfeng, deputy director of the Institute of Sociology of Jiangxi Academy of Social Sciences, said in an interview with reporters on the 4 th that young people should do their best to climb mountains on foot and have a clear understanding of their physical fitness; Relevant institutions such as scenic spots need to provide a more suitable environment and professional services to bring young people a better hiking experience.

Chinese Billiards World Championships: Two "After 00" in China compete for the men’s championship.

  The 6th CBSA Chinese Billiards World Championship was in full swing, and the final lineup was produced on December 14th. In 2019, Zhao Ruliang, the runner-up of the men’s team in the Chinese Billiards World Championship, defeated john young in the "Master-apprentice War", and in the final, he launched a peak confrontation with another "post-00" dark horse Shen Shenyi.

  The opening ceremony of this Chinese billiards world championship was staged in Yushan Sports Center Square, Jiangxi Province on the evening of December 8, with 496 players from 41 countries and regions around the world and officials from Taiwan Association from 12 countries including Russia attending. In recent years, the booming Chinese billiards is becoming a new powerful link between China and the world. (Reporter Jiang Tao Video Source Star Billiards)

From "Border War" to "National Entertainment": How Rugby Became the First Sport in America

"border war"

On August 30th, 1856, a fierce battle broke out in the small town of Sabato, Kansas, USA. The warring parties were neither white men and Indians, nor Jiang Yang thieves and local people, but abolitionists from the north and militia from Missouri, a slave-holding state in the south. About 400 heavily armed Missouri militiamen attacked this small town guarded by the famous abolitionist leader John Brown. Being outnumbered, john brown and the abolitionists finally had to retreat, and Mr. Sabato was also looted. The incident became a microcosm of the Kansas Civil War.

In 1854, the US Congress passed the kansas-nebraska act, allowing Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether to join the United States of America as a "free state" or a "slave state" by referendum. This is tantamount to the abolition of the Missouri compromise in fact, which intensified the contradiction between the north and the south on the issue of slavery.

After that, a large number of abolitionists from the north and southerners who advocated the maintenance of slavery flooded into Kansas, hoping to win the referendum by means of large-scale immigration in the short term. Under the tense atmosphere, a series of violent conflicts broke out between the two sides of the contradiction, which eventually led to a Kansas version of the "civil war." This mini-war, known as "bloody Kansas", is often regarded by later generations as a prelude to the American Civil War or a scaled-down version of the Civil War. In January 1861, after this bloody baptism, Kansas finally joined the Union as a free state. However, only three months later, the Civil War officially started. At the beginning of the war, out of revenge, a group of Kansas militia named Jayhawks attacked and looted several towns in Missouri. Later, a local armed force calling itself "Fighting Tigers" rose in Missouri to confront it. As a result, the two sides continued their hatred since "bloody Kansas" on the battlefield.

In May 1865, the Civil War officially ended. Nearly 30 years after the smoke of the Civil War dispersed, the blood feud between Kansas and Missouri did not dissipate, and even found a new battlefield to prolong the old hatred and renew the new hatred. On Halloween in 1891, the University of Kansas and the University of Missouri met head-on in an American Football game. Coincidentally, the names of these two college teams are "Kansas Jayhawks" and "Missouri Tigers". In this extremely fierce game, the University of Kansas won by 22-10, which seemed to swear that it was the winner of the civil war again, while the University of Missouri, which was unwilling, stubbornly continued to challenge. Therefore, the two teams agreed to have a contest every year. In the end, this football game not only became a competition between two universities, but also became an honor struggle between two states. The football match between "Jieying" and "Tiger" was even called "Border War" because of the hot and even explosive atmosphere. Since 1891, this "border war" has been fought for 120 years, and it was not until the University of Missouri announced its departure from the "Big 12 Conference" in 2011 that it called a truce. In the final year of the competition, the University of Missouri crushed the University of Kansas 24-10.Revenge for one’s ancestors. During these 120 years, this football game has become a projection of the political, military and historical disputes between the two States.

The "border war" between "Jieying" and "Tiger" lasted for 120 years.

Transformation of American football

George Carlin, a famous American comedian, once described the war metaphor of American football in a famous paragraph: "Baseball is a pastime game in the 19th century, while rugby is a tit-for-tat for industrialization in the 20th century; When you watch baseball, you will feel like going to a picnic, while when you watch football, you will want to kill your opponent at least 27 times. The goal of rugby is clear, and all actions revolve around the Quarterback, the’ battlefield general’. He has to observe the enemy lines and launch a surprise attack, find his catcher in the chaotic army and pass the ball accurately. He must lead an army into enemy territory and try his best to tear a hole in the enemy’s defense line! "

In the world of American football, especially college football, similar and tense feuds are everywhere, and even become one of the biggest selling points of the game, attracting the attention of the whole state and the whole country. For example, the football confrontation between the University of Texas and the University of Oklahoma is called "Red River Showdown", because in 1931, the National Guard of Texas and Oklahoma had a gun battle over the ownership of a bridge across the Red River between the two States. The feud between the University of Michigan and Ohio University can be traced back to the conflict between the two States around the border demarcation in 1835. Since 1897, the fighting between the two schools on behalf of the two States on the football field has become the most wonderful, intense and even tragic rivalry in the history of North American sports. Before and after the game, Ohio will hold "Beat Michigan Week". On the day before the 2006 World War II, Bo Schembechler, the meritorious coach of the University of Michigan, died of a heart attack. After that, every year before the Ohio University, the University of Michigan will play Bo Schembechler’s cry "Team!" before his death. Team! Team! " (The Team! The Team! The Team! ) to boost morale.

The reason why American college football has become the carrier of American social tradition and even national hatred is closely related to its development and evolution to some extent. In the eyes of many foreigners, American football players seem to be all rough and tough men with big arms and round waist, developed limbs and mostly simple minds. However, American football was originally popular in college campuses all over the United States as elite and intellectual sports. In fact, even today, all professional players who participate in the National Football League need to take an IQ test before they can qualify. At the beginning of American football’s popularity in universities in the 19th century, it happened that the movement of "Physical Christianity" was in the ascendant. This Christian faction, which originated in England, advocates that sports can not only exercise the physique, but also improve the spiritual character of Christians. And a strong Christian is a symbol of God’s glory. Influenced by it, a very important task of YMCA is to advocate young people to actively participate in sports. The rapid popularity of American football in American universities also relies on the east wind of "strong Christianity" and "YMCA", and also provides religious legitimacy for hot-blooded college students to participate in such intense and even violent sports. As a social elite, college students have naturally become spokesmen and defenders of historical traditions in various States and regions.

In 1869, Princeton University and Rutgers College played the first American football game in history. As a sport born out of rugby, American football is even more intense, and college students are injured and even killed because of the game. In 1905, as many as 18 famous college students were injured and died in the competition, which became a major news in the United States at that time and alarmed then President theodore roosevelt. As a "progressive", Roosevelt Sr. issued a statement demanding that the rules of American football must be revised to ensure the safety of players, and young people who should be the pillars of the country should not be allowed to die in vain on the court. In the end, the rules of American football changed decisively-players were allowed to pass the ball forward instead of passing it back or flat like rugby, which gradually transformed the sport into what it is today.

Athletes singing hymns, taken in the gymnasium of YMCA Training School in Massachusetts, USA in 1909.

"national entertainment"

Although as early as the 1920s, professional football games, represented by the National Football League (NFL), appeared, but their commercialization was not high. In contrast, baseball, which has been professional and commercialized as early as the 19th century, is the "first sport" for citizens and workers. At that time, many professional football teams were "attached" to professional baseball clubs. Until today, people familiar with American sports can easily find many football teams and baseball teams with the same names, such as Giants, Cardinals, Redskins, Pirates and so on. In addition, quite a few early professional American football teams were actually in a "semi-professional" state, and players had other businesses besides playing. For example, the old team with a long history-"Green Bay Packer" is a team composed of local paper packers, which started with a sponsorship fee of $500 from the boss. Later, in order to ensure the normal operation of the team, the packers turned to issue the team’s shares to local residents, and finally let the team continue to this day in the form of "crowdfunding", even in the league.

In fact, until the eve of World War II, the campus elite label of American football remained unchanged, and most professional players were also graduates from universities, including many famous schools such as Ivy League. Many of the stars of universities or professional teams in those days later became world-famous politicians and social elites, and even entered the White House. Former US President Ford was once the star center of the University of Michigan. During the two years from 1932 to 1933, he not only helped the school achieve unbeaten results in the season, but also witnessed the epic battle between his alma mater and Ohio University. After graduating from college, Ford was recruited by professional scouts. After rejecting the invitation of Green Bay Packers and Detroit Lions, he went to law school to continue his studies and enter politics.

Byron White, one of the most important justices in the history of the United States Supreme Court in the 20th century, was the absolute main force and the star of the football team of his alma mater, Colorado State University. In 1937, he was even selected as the best team of college football in the United States, leaving more than ten competitive records on the field during his school days. In the second year after graduation, White went to the Pittsburgh Pirates (later the famous Pittsburgh Steelers) to play a professional game for one year. After winning the Best Newcomer Award with the highest rookie salary, White "hung up his boots" and went to Oxford University to study law. However, due to the outbreak of the European War, he had to return to China and transfer to Yale Law School. While studying at Yale, White also took time off to participate in professional competitions, played for Detroit Lions in 1940 and 1941, and finally became the record holder of "the longest charge". In 1942, White was drafted into the U.S. Navy and ended his football career. In 1962, the former football star became a Supreme Court Justice at the age of 44.

Byron White

After the end of World War II, especially after the popularization of television, rugby finally ushered in its own commercialization opportunity. Because the NFL was still an emerging professional sports league at that time, it was more willing to embrace such an emerging product as TV broadcasting. As early as 1848, the normalized broadcast of football matches began to appear on TV. Throughout the 1950s, ABC, NBC and CBS began to broadcast important NFL games one after another, and the broadcasting fee for championship games has reached a million dollars. The NFL, which has tasted the sweetness, is even willing to modify the schedule and rules for TV broadcast to enhance the viewing as much as possible and attract more viewers.

First of all, in order to ensure the visibility of the game and avoid the disparity between teams, the TV broadcasting rights of NFL are negotiated by the league as a whole with major TV networks, and the broadcasting fees obtained are shared equally by all teams, thus ensuring the relative balance of financial resources of each team. Therefore, many Americans jokingly call the NFL a "communist" professional sports league. Secondly, in order to cooperate with the prime time of TV viewing at night, NFL became the first professional sports league to change the important game from afternoon to evening for the first time, and created the tradition of professional sports night games.

Prior to this, Major League Baseball’s important games were usually held on weekend afternoons. After that, Sunday Night Football and Monday Night Football became the trump cards of ratings. In 1967, the American Football Confederation and the original National Football League merged to form a new NFL, and then a new annual championship event, Super Bowl, was established.

As a result, the "Super Bowl" quickly became the highest-rated TV program in the United States and lasted for a long time. Since 1991, the ratings of "Super Bowl" have remained above 40%, and the ratings have been stable above 45% since 2010. In 2016, the audience of the 50th Super Bowl in the United States reached 167 million, and the advertising fee per second reached an astonishing $5 million, almost 118 times that of the 1st Super Bowl in 1967. The "Super Bowl" halftime show has become the biggest stage for American performing stars to dream about. During the 50 years when the "Super Bowl" economy flourished, professional American football finally replaced professional baseball and became the most popular and commercially valuable sports game in the United States.

Similarly, in order to attract more audiences, the venue of the "Super Bowl" is not the home of the two champion teams, but the third place chosen in advance. In the view of NFL management, this arrangement is to show that the "Super Bowl" is a national holiday, not a special welfare that residents of the cities where the two teams are located can enjoy, making it a veritable "national entertainment".

(This article was published in Wenhui Scholar on February 3rd. The original title was From "Border War" to "National Entertainment": American Football Past and Present, which was reprinted by The Paper with authorization. Now the title and subtitle are drawn up by the editor. )

Promote the further expansion of automobile consumption

Analects of Finance and Economics

Author: Wang Qing (Deputy Director and Researcher, Institute of Market Economy, the State Council Development Research Center)

Automobile is a large-scale and relatively high commodity in China’s consumption market, and it is also an important field for the continuous upgrading of residents’ consumption structure. To effectively expand and better release automobile consumption, we should grasp the new changes, trends and requirements in the automobile market, and speed up filling shortcomings, unblocking points and optimizing the environment.

At present, China’s automobile consumption has obviously accelerated, and there are many bright spots in market growth, which is the "highlight" of national and local consumption promotion. Driven by a number of policies, the automobile market has obviously warmed up. From January to October this year, a total of 23.97 million vehicles were sold, up 9% year-on-year, and the growth rate increased by 4.5 percentage points over the same period; The total retail sales of automobile products was 3.9 trillion yuan, accounting for 11.3% of the total retail sales.

At the same time, the upgrading trend of automobile consumption structure is obvious. Statistics show that the proportion of sales of models below 100,000 yuan continues to decrease, and the proportion of middle and high-priced models above 100,000 yuan continues to rise, especially luxury brand models above 300,000 yuan continue to sell well, with a year-on-year growth rate of over 30%. The consumption heat of new energy vehicles continues to climb. From January to October, a total of 7.28 million new energy vehicles were sold, up 37.8% year-on-year, accounting for more than 60% of the global sales in the same period. In October, the sales volume approached the million-vehicle mark, and China became the world’s largest new energy vehicle consumption market for eight consecutive years. Automobile exports continue to maintain a high growth trend. In the first 10 months of this year, China exported a total of 3.92 million vehicles, up 60% year-on-year, including about 1 million new energy vehicles, which doubled last year and is expected to become the world’s largest automobile exporter this year.

From the general law of automobile consumption in developed countries, there is generally an "S"-shaped change between the car ownership per thousand people and the per capita GDP, and there are three stages: introduction period, popularization period and maturity period. In the popularization period, it will experience two stages of high-speed and medium-speed growth, and the dividing point is about 100 cars per thousand people. After crossing the 100-vehicle mark in 2014, China’s automobile ownership has gradually turned to medium-speed growth, and has exceeded 200 vehicles in 2021. After turning to the medium-speed growth stage, the market increasingly presents two prominent characteristics: first, the potential growth rate of automobile demand, that is, the growth rate that potential demand can actually support, gradually falls back; Second, the main driving force to promote the growth of automobile consumption has shifted from the demand for first-time car purchase to the demand for upgrading. It is estimated that by 2030, China’s automobile market will still maintain a growth rate of about 3%, and in the past two or three years, it will be roughly at the level of 4%~5%, and automobile consumption still has great growth potential.

From the structural point of view, the structural change of automobile demand has begun to strengthen the supporting role of sales. The first is the replacement and update demand brought by consumption upgrading. At present, nearly 100 million private cars in China have reached or exceeded 6 years old, and they have entered a large-scale renewal cycle. Updating 1% every year can drive considerable sales. In 2022, about 60% of China’s automobile sales will be purchased or replaced. The second is the demand for new energy vehicles led by technological progress. The market share of new energy vehicles is 20% to 50%, which is the fastest growing stage. It is predicted that by 2025, the market share of new energy vehicles in China will reach 50% and the annual sales scale will reach 15 million. Third, the demand for cascade expansion supported by the rural market. From 2018 to 2022, the average number of family cars per 100 households in rural areas increased from 22.3 to 32.4, with an average annual growth rate of 12%, twice the growth rate of towns in the same period, and it is in the fastest stage of increasing the number of cars per 1,000 people. The fourth is the related consumption demand of automobile aftermarket expansion. The personalized and fashionable consumption of young consumers is rising day by day, and the demand for car modification and beauty is very strong, with great growth potential.

To effectively expand and better release automobile consumption, we must conform to the new characteristics and general trends of automobile consumption and market, speed up the filling of consumption shortcomings, unblock policy blockages, and optimize the market environment.

Actively promote the upgrading of old models. Combined with local policy experience, promote the adjustment and upgrading of automobile stock and stimulate incremental consumption. Appropriately increase the replacement subsidy and increase the reward for upgrading fuel vehicles to new energy vehicles. Promote the abolition of unreasonable restrictions on second-hand car transactions, further facilitate second-hand car transactions in different places, and promote the standardized and large-scale development of the second-hand car industry.

Continue to expand the consumption of new energy vehicles. Accelerate the planning and construction of charging facilities, and accelerate the charging facilities to enter communities, highways, scenic spots and public parking lots (parking spaces), effectively alleviating mileage anxiety and charging anxiety. Accelerate the research and development of related technologies and further reduce the cost of car purchase and car use.

Accelerate the activation of rural automobile consumption market. Improve rural roads, gas stations, charging stations and other infrastructure conditions, guide the sinking of automobile distribution and service networks, and realize the synergy of automobiles and services to the countryside. Promote the precise management of pickup trucks, and clarify regulations such as annual inspection, scrapping and high-speed charging.

Orderly release the market consumption demand after the automobile. Promote the standardized, transparent and efficient development of automobile parts circulation, promote the upgrading of automobile maintenance services, and accelerate the construction of new energy vehicle maintenance technical standard system. Build a multi-level automobile race pattern, orderly release consumer demand such as automobile beauty, and activate the aftermarket consumption potential of automobiles.

Focus on optimizing the automobile consumption policy and environment. Optimize the tax rate of automobile purchase tax and consumption tax, and effectively promote automobile echelon consumption. Strengthen the construction of urban smart transportation and create a good car environment. Strengthen comprehensive financial support for automobile consumption services.

Guangming Daily (15th edition, November 23rd, 2023)

Source: Guangming Net-Guangming Daily