The spring of artificial intelligence creation has come, and the "hidden rules" of ancient poetry are taught by computer.

  Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, March 12th Special feature: The spring of artificial intelligence creation is coming.

  Xinhua News Agency reporter Peng Qian Liu Si

  "Early spring rain Chu Qing, willow filar silk caught the shore warbler. The painting boat is full of smoke and waves, and the small bridge is light. "

  Who would have thought that this is a poem created by artificial intelligence with "early spring" as the key word. The author "Nine Songs" was developed by a student team led by Professor Sun Maosong of Tsinghua University Computer Science and Technology Department for three years.

  Xiao Bing, Microsoft’s chat robot, "narrowly beat" human opponents with a Chinese-style song "Peach Blossom Dream" in the variety show "Wit". When the singer sings such an archaic sentence as "In the boundless night rain, the past is like the wind, the peach blossoms in the ear laugh at the spring breeze, and you and I meet in the dream", many viewers think that this is made by human beings.

  The spring of writing poetry, composing music, painting and artificial intelligence has come quietly … …

  Technically, "familiar with 300 Tang poems"

  Zhou Ming, vice president of Microsoft Asia Research Institute, is a literary lover. He and the research team taught Xiao Bing to write modern poetry, and composing music is a new skill.

  Zhou Ming said that neural machine translation, chatting robot, reading comprehension and creation are the four main aspects of the application of natural language processing technology, and the difficulty is gradually increasing. Creation is at the top of the pyramid and it is the most difficult to break through.

  "In the beginning, people couldn’t find how to model creation because it was emotional. Writing poems and writing lyrics are all things with flying literary talents and sudden inspiration, which are difficult to capture. " He said. Thanks to the progress of deep learning and neural network technology in recent years, artificial intelligence creation has won many brilliant achievements.

  Zhou Ming introduced that writing songs by Xiao Bing is a process of "encoding and decoding". The researchers first trained artificial intelligence robots with popular songs. After sufficient training, you can start writing: after inputting the song theme in the form of keywords, it will be coded into a language that artificial intelligence can understand, and the robot will decode and output it in a way that people can understand, becoming a lyric; Then combine this word with the original keyword as a new input, and you can get the second sentence, and so on to get the whole song word. Similarly, you can also input lyrics and translate them into music scores, that is, you can regard music scores as natural languages, thus completing computer lyrics and music scores.

  "Nine Songs" learning to write poetry is also "familiar with 300 Tang poems, and you can recite them even if you can’t write poetry".

  Yi Xiaoyuan, the founder of "Nine Songs" and a graduate student in Tsinghua University, has input more than 300,000 ancient poems since the Tang Dynasty as a corpus, and used the deep learning model to make computer learning. In addition to the rules for leveling and rhyming poems, no artificial rules are given, but computers are allowed to learn the "hidden rules" in ancient poems themselves.

  "We don’t know the rules of how computers make such poems," said Sun Maosong, which is a "black box" phenomenon of deep learning. In his view, each ancient poem is like a necklace, and the beads on the necklace are words. In the deep learning model, the necklace is completely broken up, and then the implicit association between each bead and other beads is given different weights through automatic learning. When writing a poem, put different beads back into a new necklace.

  The ancients wrote poems mostly to express their feelings, and the style was sad, which also made the poems written by "Nine Songs" somewhat "sad for spring and autumn". The team hopes to make the "Nine Songs" more positive by strengthening the training of some relaxed emotional samples. In addition, how to write a longer poem on the basis of ensuring the consistency of the whole poem is also a new challenge.

  In artistic conception, "Kung Fu is beyond poetry"

  In addition to writing poems and composing music, artificial intelligence has evolved new skills such as writing novels and painting. The science fiction novel "The Day when a Computer Writes a Novel" created by artificial intelligence developed in Japan deceived all human judges and was successfully shortlisted for the Japanese Fiction Literature Award. Google artificial intelligence can also create paintings, and some paintings have been sold at a high price of $8,000.

  Artificial intelligence has defeated human beings in the fields of chess and cards, video games, etc. Does the latest progress in the field of artistic creation mean that it is not far from surpassing human beings in this respect?

  Zhou Ming believes that at present, artificial intelligence creation is only based on the imitation of big data, which is far from the creative intelligence of real human beings. "There is not enough data for training artificial intelligence creation, such as the data for composing lyrics; Secondly, the inspiration is not enough, because the data alone is just a follower, writing words and composing music are familiar, and there is no feeling of sudden inspiration in generate. "

  In Sun Maosong’s view, at present, artificial intelligence creation is a limited creativity, which theoretically does not exceed the creative space unconsciously defined by predecessors in the practice of poetry creation for thousands of years. The ancients wrote poetry as "Kung Fu is beyond poetry", often based on experience, with content and artistic conception, but it is difficult for machines to "express their aspirations" or "express their feelings through scenery" for the time being.

  Experts believe that the fear that artificial intelligence surpasses human beings in the field of creation is alarmist. "In areas that need deep connotation or inspiration, such as music creation, poetry and prose, I personally think that machines are basically unlikely to reach the state of people, but they will assist people’s creation." Zhou Ming said.

  However, artificial intelligence can improve the efficiency of professional creators. "If you can’t think of using a word when writing, artificial intelligence will think of a word for you and let you find that you can write like this." For ordinary people, artificial intelligence creation systems such as "Nine Songs" can lower the threshold of creation and realize the dream that "everyone can be a poet, painter or musician".

  Sun Maosong said that the team plans to upgrade the "Nine Songs" system in the future, so that it can judge the quality of people’s poems, such as whether there are mistakes in rhyme and level tone, whether words are unsatisfactory or sentences are incomplete, and help people improve their creative skills; You can also conduct "humanistic calculation" and quantitative analysis and research on ancient documents through big data.

  In addition to the creation itself, the study of machine creation can also bring unexpected benefits to other fields of artificial intelligence, and open up innovation in many fields and interdisciplinary subjects.

  "Before letting Xiao Bing learn music creation, we never thought that music can also be processed by natural language technology," Zhou Ming said. "So once the natural language breaks through, it can drive the breakthrough of cognitive intelligence and the whole artificial intelligence, and there will be many scenes that were unimaginable before."

What to eat in autumn? Taste the richness of the earth

Yichang Qingjiang hehua fish

Yichang Qingjiang hehua fish

Steamed hibiscus eggs with cream crab

Steamed hibiscus eggs with cream crab

Fried Honghu lotus root clip

Fried Honghu lotus root clip

Honey Dew melon

Bai Lan Gua Tu Wu Yanlong

  After beginning of autumn passed, it officially entered the autumn with the most abundant harvest among the four seasons. Both seafood and fruits and vegetables are growing vigorously. At this time, they have the most nutrients stored in their bodies, strong physique and the best taste.

  A

  Blue crab September fertilizer

  There is still a month before the golden age of eating crabs, and crab lovers can’t help but look around. At present, there are seasonal meat crabs and cream crabs (male crabs and female crabs among blue crabs) in the market, which can comfort the lovers’ lovesickness. Stepping into September, the fleshy crabs and cream crabs are almost spherical in shape, and the tips of their claws are bulging, so you can spit meat and mouth cream!

  [Male Crab]

  Meat crabs are all male crabs, so there will be a sharp mark on their abdomen. Every year from August to November in the lunar calendar, the meat crab is the best time to be made. At this time, its meat is as white as jade, its shell is as round as a shield, and its legs and claws are round and solid, which is worthy of the folk saying that "the meat crab in August is worth a chicken".

  In the eyes of laymen, meat crabs all look alike, with green and hard shells and long and powerful claws. In fact, they also have different places of origin, and their meat quality and sweetness are also different according to the salinity of the waters where they are located. According to experts, there are three kinds of meat crabs in Guangzhou: Vietnamese blue crab, Taishan meat crab and Nansha 18-year-old meat crab, which are different in size and meat taste.

  The Vietnamese blue crab is fleshy and firm.

  Among the meat crabs, the Vietnamese blue crab can be said to be one of the "big brothers". The weight jumps from 2 kg, which can reach 3.5 kg. When the eight claws are open, they are longer than the diameter of basketball.

  Although it is huge and bared its teeth, it is actually a shallow sea crab that grew up eating seaweed. Meat quality is the most compact of the three kinds of meat crabs, so it is also the most fire-resistant, especially suitable for rich flavor dishes that need to be stewed for a long time.

  Shibayong meat crab tastes fresh and sweet.

  Among the three kinds of meat crabs, Shibayong meat crab can be regarded as the smallest, weighing about 1 kg to 1.5 kg. It belongs to salty freshwater crab, and its meat taste is the sweetest among the three crabs, and its meat quality is also the smoothest.

  If the meat quality and sweetness are relatively average, it should be considered as Taishan salt water crab. It belongs to deep-water crab, which usually moves at the bottom of more than ten meters deep, so the crab shell is dark green with white spots and round spots on it, weighing about 1.5 to 2 kg.

  [Female Crab]

  Meat crabs are all male crabs, so where is the female crab? Don’t panic, the female crab is the favorite cream crab of gourmets.

  There are also high and low levels of cream crabs, and the most sweet one is the "top corner cream crab", that is, when you look at the light, you can see that the cream reaches the corner of the crab shell. Among them, the "top-corner cream crab" produced in Taishan is the most popular among eaters, because Taishan is located at the junction of salt and fresh water in the Pearl River Estuary, and the cream crab meat produced is sweet and creamy, especially soft and slippery.

  For experts who are familiar with the road, Taishan vertex cream crab is the most rare in mangrove wild cream crab. It turns out that mangroves can only grow on pollution-free beaches, so the cream crabs that grow up here are pure wild. They feed on natural shrimp shells, and their meat is smooth and fragrant, with crab oil, which can be said to be cream crabs.

  Compared with previous years, there are many kinds of cream crabs this year. Therefore, how to unlock the new opening method is also worthy of the chefs’ hard work. Recently, the Caiyuexuan Chinese Restaurant of Sheraton Guangdong Hotel has cooked a "steamed hibiscus eggs with cream crabs" with unique cooking techniques. Li Shifu used the cream crab from Humen, the mouth of the Pearl River, and served it with farmer organic eggs. In order to ensure the delicious taste of this dish, the master replaced water with fresh crab soup, realized zero water addition at the bottom of steamed egg soup, and strictly controlled the transpiration time to 8 minutes. Under the transpiration of the fire, the delicate flavor of the cream crab is fully integrated into the egg liquid. The whole dish looks ordinary, but it extremely tests the chef’s skill and temperature.

  B

  Flower fish is the fattest and tender meat.

  The flower fish is actually a kind of small carp. This fish is covered with fine leaf scales, and its skin is so thin that its internal organs can be faintly seen. When cooking, it is only necessary to take out its bile without removing its internal organs.

  It is abundant in Hubei and Hunan, and is usually found in rice fields in mountainous areas. This little carp feeds on the fallen flowers, so it is named because the fish has the fragrance of flowers. Among them, Chenzhou, Hunan and Yichang, Hubei are the fattest. Compared with other areas, the flower fish bones produced in these two areas are soft and odorless, and generally weigh between 50 and 250 grams.

  Compared with common carp, its most obvious feature is that its abdomen is lavender, with main thorns and no fine thorns, and its meat is sweet. Therefore, there is a saying in these two places that "flowers and fish drink wine, and those who see it will not leave." Most of the flower fish in Hunan are fried or salted. Hubei is mostly stewed, but also pay attention to the original soup to change the original food, even fish soup to eat.

  The chef of "No.1 Hanzheng Street" said that the local people would first fry the flower fish on both sides until they are slightly yellow, and then add ingredients such as fish cake and yellow pepper to stew them together. When the aroma is revealed, the fish will be cooked. When you come up, you should eat fish first, then a piece of hand-made fish cake made of bighead carp in Jingzhou, Hubei Province, and then pour a spoonful of fish soup on the rice noodles, which is the most authentic way to eat in Yichang.

  C

  Nine-hole lotus root versus Biqiu

  In addition to flower fish, Honghu lotus root is now made in Hubei. For Guangzhou people, homesickness is a bowl of Wonton Noodles; So for Hubei people, homesickness is a bowl of lotus root ribs soup.

  The lotus root of Honghu Lake, strongly influenced by China on the Tip of the Tongue, has finally entered the autumn harvest period after experiencing the accumulation in spring and summer. Honghu Lake is the largest wetland reserve in China, and the precipitation of aquatic plants for nearly a thousand years has bred fertile blue lake mud. Lotus root, which is abundant here, is known as the "treasure in water". It is slender in shape, tender and white in powder, and rich in starch. It can be melted in the mouth when used to make soup.

  The lotus root in Honghu Lake, Hubei Province is different from other places and belongs to the unique "Miancheng Lotus Root" among the lotus roots in Hubei Province. It is said that all lotus roots in the world have seven holes, and only Honghu Miancheng lotus root has nine holes. Honghu lotus root, each section is about 1.5 feet long, raw food is sweet, crisp and delicious, and stew is not muddy.

  The local people’s preference for it is just like Guangzhou people’s good boiled chicken. In early summer, they eat lotus root heads, which are thin and tender, cut into inches and stir-fry with green pepper. The picture shows the word crisp and tender. When the lotus is on the market, eat lotus seeds, peel off the skin of the remaining empty lotus, and stir-fry it in a pot, which is another good dish in season.

  The chef taught the way, and the locals also invented different ways to eat different segments of lotus root. Lotus root is the most tender in the first and second sections, and it is most suitable to cut it into thin slices and stir-fry it with vinegar. But remember to add some white vinegar when frying, so that the fried lotus root slices will be white enough. The rest of the lotus root nodes are of course used to cook ribs lotus root soup. Honghu lotus root is rich in starch and is most suitable for stewing soup.

  D

  Golden mushroom is tender and refreshing.

  Also on the market at the same time, there is Jinfu Mushroom, which is called "White Tricholoma matsutake" by the Japanese, which is an edible fungus that has just been developed in recent years.

  Tricholoma lobata is a large mushroom, with a weight of 250 to 300 grams, and the weight of a cluster of mushrooms can often reach 5 to 10 kilograms. It is white in color and long in stalk, also known as Tricholoma giganteum. It is characterized by sweet and fresh taste and excellent chewiness, like chicken. Because it is thick and thick like Tricholoma matsutake and bright white in color, it is called "white Tricholoma matsutake" by the Japanese. In recent years, Tricholoma lobata has been introduced to the mainland for cultivation. At the turn of summer and autumn every year, it is the time when Jinfu mushrooms are listed in large quantities.

  Brother Jian, the person in charge of "Shanquan Mansion", said that although Jinfu mushroom is big, it is not as thick as possible, and the umbrella handle is about one finger thick and the mushroom umbrella is not opened. This specification of Tricholoma lobata is tender and refreshing, with no residue in the entrance, and it is very beautiful simply by boiling it in oil and salt water.

  E

  Bai LAN gua Tian

  Seabuckthorn fruit appetizing

  When it comes to the season of northwest China, there is the white melon produced in Lanzhou, also known as honey dew. The melon meat is tender, juicy and sweet as honey. It is the most famous in Qingbaishi Township, Chengguan District, Lanzhou City, with a sugar degree greater than 14 degrees. The person in charge of "Xibei Youmian Village" said that the real white melon is characterized by yellow skin, green flesh, thick juice, crisp and tender, and is known as "sweet as osmanthus, sweet as honey".

  Its construction period is very short, only one month. Because of its high sweetness, it is not picked until it is mature in 1989, so it can only be transported by air, and the whole temperature should be controlled between 0℃ and 5℃. Good white melon, with wrinkled skin and thick lines. According to the chef, in addition to raw melon, you can also add egg white to make soup, which is the best choice to solve autumn dryness.

  In Lanzhou, there is also seabuckthorn fruit, which is just a little bigger than soybean. Because it is too small, it can only be collected by shaking the tree, and then the impurities are screened out by hand. Its usual practice is to juice, and then add rock sugar to balance the sweetness. This special seabuckthorn juice can be tasted in Xibei Youmian Village.